14. First Aid for stroke


Today we will talk about strokes. There are types and symptoms to recognize its development. We will also go through the first aid in these situations. The brain is the center for analysis and management of the well coordinated work of all our organs. Nerve cells, or neurons that perform this work need a constant supply of nutrients and oxygen. Therefore, two pairs of arteries, carotid, and vertebrate go to the brain. Together, these arteries form a common arterial system, sending the branches to different parts of the brain. Blood supply to neurons is regulated by reducing or increasing the lumen of the arteries. Sudden blockage or rupture of a vessel leads to the failure of blood flow to neurons. This condition is called acute cerebral circulation disorder or stroke.

To perform their functions Oxygen GP weighted neurons are unable to perform their functions. A stroke can happen to a person of any age. Many believe that strokes occur only in adults after 40 years. However, statistics show that it can happen to children, even newborns and infants. Furthermore, in a young person, the stroke has less typical signs.

Therefore, the longer he will be left without help, the more sad the consequences of the brain disaster may be. The risk group includes diabetes mellitus, hypertension, arrhythmias, blood clotting disorders, obesity, and smokers. Hundreds of thousands of strokes are registered annually in civilized countries. It’s important to take action in the first few minutes. This is why it is essential to know the first aid in case of stroke.

A stroke occurs when one of the brain arteries get blocked or ripped. Therefore, there are two types of strokes.

Hemorrhagic stroke is the most dangerous type of disease with a severe threat to life. It is a brain hemorrhage when blood comes out from the ruptured artery.

Ischemic stroke is the most common type. The brain damage occurs due to low blood flow when the clot completely blocks the vessel's lumen, resulting in a lack of oxygen. Ischemia violates the normal blood flow and brain cells’ death begins.

The process of damage to the brain structures can develop extremely rapidly, so the longer a victim does not get proper medical care, the more irreversible changes occur. A stroke appears suddenly, often without any signs at any time of a day. At this moment, a victim's life depends on who is around and how quickly help will be provided. Three to six hours separate the victim from irreversible changes in the brain or even death.

What are the main signs of a stroke? The symptoms as a rule, develop very quickly. Usually, a person has a weakness, sleepiness, a sharp internal severe headache occurs often after stress or physical work. The victim complain that the head literally tears. Their balance and coordination get disturbed. There may be a sudden loss of insensitivity or weakness, especially on one side of the body.

Stroke is characterized by unilateral paresis when the muscle weakness manifests only on the left or right side of the body. Therefore, the victim’s facial features change. You can notice the drooling on one side of the face. Next is the speech disorder, a full mouth feel. Speech becomes less precise. Either it slows down, or conversely a person starts to babble unclearly. The victim may also complain about fog in front of the eyes, defocusing or double vision. It becomes difficult for the victim to formulate his thoughts and choose words. There is a simple and reliable test that allows to recognize a stroke in 80 percent of cases. It's called face arm speech test or FAST.

The FAST algorithm is the following:

Face: ask a person to smile or show his teeth. In a stroke, there is a noticeable face asymmetry. The mouth on one side hangs.

Arm: ask a person to rise and hold both hands for five seconds by 90 degrees in the sitting position, or 45 degrees in a lying position. In a stroke, one of the hands is lowered down.

Speech: ask a person to say simple phrase. In a stroke, a person cannot pronounce a simple sentence clearly and correctly.

His speech is illegible. Even one symptom indicates a stroke development.

When providing first aid, the main rule is not to hesitate. If any of these signs appear, call an ambulance immediately. While you are waiting for the ambulance to arrive, there are a few simple rules that can significantly help a patient with a stroke.

Lay the victim down so that the head and shoulders are above the torso. If older people have dentures in the oral cavity, take them out. Undo all tight clothes, open the window, provide access to fresh air. It is essential to make sure that the victim can breathe. If you find a respiratory problem or there is a possibly of vomiting, you have to free the airways. Put the patient on his side and clear the mouth. If possible, measure the blood pressure and determine the sugar level in the blood. Record the results and report them to the ambulance crew when it comes. If the pressure is high, give the medicine that the victim usually takes in such cases. If the stroke happened at home, you could put the victim’s leg in hot water. It will open the leg vessels and decrease the pressure.

But do not lower the blood pressure too fast, 10-15 millimeters mercury column is optimal. If you suspect a person having a stroke, do not give him food or drink as the swallowing may be impaired. If the victim has breathing but no consciousness, put him in a stable lateral position. If he's unconscious and not breathing, immediately start CPR.

To sum up, you have learned what a stroke is, the type of strokes, & the symptoms to recognize a stroke. You can also analyze the actions you need to take in giving first aid before the ambulance arrives.

Post your comment
Required for comment verification